Paul Van Kempen (1893 - 1955)
Van Kempen studied at the Amsterdam Conservatory from 1910 to 1913. From 1913, he was a violinist with the Concertgebouw Orchestra. After 1916, he began to make his career more in Germany, becoming a German citizen in 1932. From 1934 to 1942, he was principal conductor of the Dresden Philharmonic, then in 1942 he succeeded Herbert von Karajan as Kapellmeister in Aachen, serving until 1944.
In 1949, van Kempen returned to the Netherlands as principal conductor of the Netherlands Radio Philharmonic Orchestra, based in Hilversum. However, his conducting activities during World War II, for example conducting concerts for the Wehrmacht, made him a controversial figure in the Netherlands.